DATA Dictionary in SAP ABAP

In this blog, I will discuss What is DATA Dictionary in SAP ABAP is.

In our day-to-day life, we deal with DATA knowingly or unknowingly. So what is DATA? It is nothing much meaningful information. In any system for storing the data, we used a database. The database consists of multiple tables which store data in row and column format.

So which database is used in SAP ABAP? We can use both Open SQL and Native SQL. With the help of a Data Dictionary, we can work on a database. A data dictionary is a tool that is used to modify or enhance the database and database tables used by the SAP system. Dictionary is viewed as Meta DATA i.e Data about Data. In SQL there are five different types of SQL commands like DDL, DML, DCL, etc. The DDL (Data Definition Language) contains the commands, such as CREATE Table, Drop Table, Alter Table, etc, this will be handled by Data Dictionary.

With the help of Data Dictionary, we can create and maintain user-defined types, such as data elements, structures, table types, etc. The ABAP data dictionary can be easily integrated with the ABAP workbench, so all the workbench components can easily access the definitions stored in the ABAP dictionary.

  • Data elements: It is used to define the type of a table field, structure component, or the row type of a table type.
  • Structures: It consists of components that also have a type, that is they refer to a type.
  • Table types: It describes the structure and functional attributes of an internal table.

The Main Functions of Data Dictionary are :

  • Database Tables.
  • Domains.
  • Data Elements.
  • Views.
  • Search Helps.
  • Lock Objects.

DataBase table: It is the collection of fields that contain physical data. It stores the data in the form of Rows and Columns.

There are 3 different types of SAP Tables :

  • Transparent.
  • Cluster.
  • Pool.

Domains: It is used to maintain technical information of the field such as data types, data length, value range, value position, etc.

Data Elements: It is used to define the type of a table field, structure component, or the row type of a table type. Data Elements inherit Domain.

Views: It is a logical view on one or more tables. A view on one or more tables i.e., the data from a view is not actually physically stored instead of being derived from one or more tables.

There are 4 types of Views :

  • Database View.
  • Maintenance View.
  • Help View.
  • Projection View.

Search Help: There are objects that you can use to assign input help [ by pressing on keyboard F4 to screen fields. Alternatively, we can do this by creating a search help in the ABAP Dictionary.

There are two types of Search Helps :

  • Elementary search helps.
  • Collective search helps.

Lock Object: It is used to synchronize access to the same data by more than one program.


In the article, I give an overview of the Data Dictionary in SAP ABAP.

Thanks for reading.

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I am Google Cloud Certified Associate Cloud Engineer and MS Azure Certifed. I have been working on different fields including Cloud Computing , Sap ABAP.